Lions are the only big cats that live in social groups known as prides. A pride typically consists of related females, their cubs, and a few adult males. There are two recognised lion subspecies of lion found in the wild. The African lion (Panthera leo leo) is found in Africa, south of the Sahara desert. The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) exists in one small population around Gir Forest National Park in western India.
Lions live in grasslands and savannas, not dense forests.
Male lions can weigh up to 190kg and females weigh 126kg.
Lions mostly hunt at night as their eyes have adapted to the dark and this gives them a huge advantage over their prey.
Male lions are distinguishable by their impressive manes, which serves as a visual indicator of their health and dominance. The darker and fuller the mane, the more attractive they are to potential mates.
Female lions are the primary hunters in the pride. They work together to coordinate and execute hunting strategies, making them highly effective predators.
Lions are known to be quite lazy and sleep for an average of 16 to 20 hours a day, conserving energy for hunting during the cooler hours of the day.
Lions are incredibly fast runners. They can reach a speed of up to 80 km/h for short distances.
Lions are very vocal creatures and communicate through various sounds, including roars, grunts, growls, and meows. Roaring is a distinct feature of male lions, which can be heard up to 8 km away.
Lion cubs are blind at the time of their birth. They rely on their mothers for protection and nourishment. They are usually hidden in dense vegetation for the first few weeks of their lives.
Lions are highly territorial animals, and prides fiercely defend their territories from other prides or intruders. Males from outside prides may challenge the resident males for control of the pride.
Conservation Status: Lions are considered vulnerable and face threats such as habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and poaching. Conservation efforts are essential to protect these magnificent creatures.
The Indian Constitution was drafted by an assembly of elected members collectively called the Constituent Assembly. The election to the Constit-ent Assembly was held in July 1946 and its first meeting was held on December 9, 1946. The members of the Constituent Assembly were mainly elected by the members of the then existing Provincial Legislatures. The Constituent Assembly had 299 members that wrote the Constitution.
Dr. Rajendra Prasad was appointed as the first President of the Constituent Assembly in December 1946.
The Drafting Committee
The Constituent Assembly established a Drafting Committee on August 29, 1947, under the chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, to come up with a draft Constitution for India for discussion. The members discussed and debated the draft Constitution for 114 days spread over three years. On February 21, 1948, the Drafting Committee submitted the draft Constitu-tion, as settled by it, to the President of the Constituent Assembly.
Public Circulation of the Draft Constitution
After the submission of the Draft Constitution, copies of it were widely circulated to the public. Many suggestions, comments, and criticisms were received. The President of the Constituent Assembly had directed the Drafting Committee to consider the suggestions received. Special committees were also formed by the President of the Constituent Assembly to go through the comments and suggestions. Subsequently, the Drafting Committee re-submitted the Draft Constitution after including the recommended amendments, for adoption.
Which Language was the Constitution Originally Drafted in?
The original copies of the Indian Constitution were written in Hindi and English. Each member of the Constituent Assembly that drafted the Con-stitution, signed two copies of the Constitution, one in Hindi and the other in English.
Interestingly, both the versions of the Constitution, Hindi and English, were handwritten. Each word was carefully calligraphed by Prem Behari Narain Raizada. Further, the Constitution has been beautifully illustrated by artist Nandalal Bose and his students.
Where was the Constitution Drafted?
The historic task of drafting the Constitution of India was undertaken in the Constitution Hall, which is now known as the Central Hall of Parliament House, New Delhi.
DID YOU KNOW?
Every word discussed and every document presented during this discussion in the Constituent Assembly is preserved in a document called “Constituent Assembly Debates”.
MN Roy was the first person to suggest the idea of establishing a Constituent Assembly in 1934.
DRAFTING OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION
Adoption of the Constitution of India
The Constitution of India was formally adopted by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949 and was formally signed by the members of the Assembly on January 24, 1950. November 26th is known as the Constitution Day or the National Day and is celebrated to commemorate the adoption of the Constitution of India.
When Did The Constitution Come into force?
The Indian Constitution came into effect on January 26, 1950, when independent India declared itself as a Sovereign, Democratic and a Republic state. This day is observed as Republic Day. The date January 26 was chosen as this day is an important moment in the Indian nationalist move-ment. On January 26, 1930, the Indian National Congress, through the Declaration of Purna Swarai. passed a resolution demanding complete independence for the first time.
What Happened After the Constitution came into force?
After the Constitution of India came into force on January 26, 1950, the Constituent Assembly ceased to exist and transformed itself into the Provisional Parliament of India until a new Parliament was constituted in 1952.
DID YOU KNOW?
1. When the country was divided into India and Pakistan, the Constituent Assembly was also divided into the Constituent Assembly of India and Pakistan.
2. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is known as the ‘Father of the Indian Constitution’.
Indian Constitution is the largest written constitution in the world with 1,17,360 words (in the English version). The Preamble of the Constitution of India declares the country as a sovereign, socialist, secular and democratic republic and aims to secure justice, liberty, and equality for all citizens and promote fraternity to maintain the unity and integrity of the nation. The Preamble is the introduction to the Constitution, which provides the main features and ideas of India.
The ideals behind the Preamble to India’s Constitution were laid down by Jawaharlal Nehru’s Objectives Resolution, adopted by the Constituent Assembly on January 22, 1947.
DID YOU KNOW?
The original 1950 constitution is preserved in a helium-filled case at the Parliament House in New Delhi.
IMPORTANT GLOSSARY OF TERMS
A Constitution is the fundamental and supreme law of any country. It is a rule book by which the government and citizens must abide. All laws of the country have to conform to the Constitution.
Citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion and people of all religions have equal rights. It also means that there is no national or state religion.
No citizen can be discriminated against on the basis of caste, religion, and, or, gender. Government should work for the welfare of all.
A sovereign state is one that can decide all its own policies. No other country can tell it what to do.
A form of government where people enjoy equal rights to elect their representatives and hold them accountable.
There are no unreasonable restrictions on the citizens in what they think, how they wish to express their thoughts and the way they act.
Socialism has many different mean-ings. However, in the context of the Indian Constitution it means reducing inequalities in income and improving the lives of people.
A republic is a form of government in which the head of state is an elected person. Republics have elected presidents rather than kings and queens.
All are equal before the law. The government has to ensure that everyone has equal opportunity and enjoy equal protection of law.
All of us should behave as if we are the members of the same family. No citizen should be treated as an inferior.
Recently, Christopher Nolan’s movie “Oppenheimer” was released worldwide. It is based on the life of J. Robert Oppenheimer. The movie is based on the book American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J Robert Oppenheimer.
J. Robert Oppenheimer was an American scientist. He studied physics and played an important role in the development of the first atomic bomb. He is often known as the “Father of the Atomic Bomb.”
The Nazi Party took control of Germany at the start of the 1930s. Albert Einstein and other scientists were forced to flee the Nazis. These experts alerted the U.S. administration that Germany was trying to build an atomic bomb during World War II. The Manhattan Project, a research project to create an atomic bomb, was organised by the American Army in 1942. Oppenheimer was appointed the head of a lab associated with the Manhattan Project. The lab, in Los Alamos, New Mexico, produced the first atomic bomb in 1945. Under this project two bombs, named Fat Man and Little Boy, were developed. These were dropped by the U.S.A. on two Javanese cites known as Hiroshima and Nagasaki to stop the Second World War.
1. J. Robert Oppenheimer was born on April 22, 1904, in New York City, USA, to a wealthy German-Jewish family.
2. From a very young age, Oppenheimer was very intelligent. He learned to read at an early age. He was not even a teenager when he was able to study and understand advanced topics like calculus.
3. Oppenheimer was fluent in several languages, including German, French, and Sanskrit. He had a passion for literature and could quote poetry in multiple languages.
4. He studied at Harvard University and later earned his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Göttingen in Germany.
5. Oppenheimer made significant contributions to quantum theory and quantum mechanics, particularly in the field of quantum electrodynamics.
6. He became a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, where he played a crucial role in establishing the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
7. After the war, Oppenheimer became an advocate for international control of nuclear weapons and spoke out against the development of the hydrogen bomb.
8. Oppenheimer had ties to left-wing and communist-leaning organizations during the 1930s, which later led to security clearance issues during the McCarthy era. In the 1950s, he faced accusations of being a security risk due to his past associations with left-wing groups and was subject to a highly controversial security clearance hearing. Despite protests from prominent scientists, Oppenheimer’s security clearance was revoked in 1954, effectively ending his involvement in government science.
9. Following the revocation of his security clearance, Oppenheimer returned to teaching and research at Princeton University. In 1953, Oppenheimer was instrumental in setting up the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, which became a leading center for theoretical research.
10. Throughout his life, Oppenheimer received numerous awards and honours, including the Enrico Fermi Award and the Presidential Medal of Merit.
11. J. Robert Oppenheimer passed away on February 18, 1967, in Princeton, New Jersey, at the age of 62.
12. These facts provide a glimpse into the fascinating life and career of Robert Oppenheimer, a complex and influential figure in the history of science and the development of nuclear weapons.
On August 15, 1947 India attained independence from 200 years of British rule. The first prime minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru raised the Indian national flag at Lahori Gate, Red Fort, Delhi.
First 5 Years : India’s Independence
Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of the Nation was assassinated on January 30. 1948.
The Constitution of India came into force on January 26, 1950. This day is celebrated as the Republic Day.
India hosted the first ever Asian Games in 1951 in New Delhi.
The first general elections were held in India between October 1951 and February 1952. The first democratically elected prime minister was Jawaharlal Nehru.
10 – 15 Years : Glory Of India’ Independence
Arati Saha became the first Asian woman to successfully swim across the English channel in 1959.
In 1959 the first television was introduced in India.
The Indian football team won the gold medal in the 1962 Asian Games.
20 – 30 Years : History of the Independent of India
The Green revolution was launched in India in 1967. The Green Revolution involved the use of new techniques to grow and harvest crops with the help of modern machinery and technology. This enabled India to become the world’s leading agricultural country.
The Indian Space Research Organisation was founded in 1969.
The first Indian satellite Aryabhata was launched in 1975.
30 – 40 Years : Historical Events in Indian History
In 1979, Albanian-born Mother Teresa became the first Indian woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize.
In 1983, the Indian cricket team won its first World Cup in England defeating the mighty West Indies. Kapil Dev was the captain of the Indian cricket team.
Rakesh Sharma became the first Indian to travel to space in 1984.
India for the first time hosted the cricket world cup in 1987.
50 – 60 Years : Important Dates in Indian History
Amartya Sen became the first Indian to win a Nobel Prize for Economic Sciences in 1998.
In 2000, chess grandmaster Viswanathan Anand became the first Indian to win the World Chess Championship.
Pratibha Patil became the first woman to be elected as the President of India in 2007.
60 – 70 Years : 70 Years Of Independent India
In 2008, Abhinav Bindra became the first Indian to win an individual Olympic gold. He won the gold medal at the Beijing 2008 Olympics for 10m air rifle shooting. He has also won the World Championship gold and multiple medals at the Commonwealth Games and Asian Games.
In 2010, the Indian rupee got its own symbol.
India launched its first interplanetary mission to Mars in 2013.
India set up its first dedicated space laboratory Astrosat in 2015. Astrosat satellite was launched from Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.
70 – 75 Years : 75 Years Of Independent India
In 2017, the Indian national women’s cricket team entered the World Cup Final for the first time.
Neeraj Chopra became the first Indian field and track athlete ever to win an Olympic gold medal. He won the gold for javelin throw at the Olympics Games Tokyo 2020.
India secured a non-permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council for 2021-2022.
76 Years : Historical Movement of Independent India
India’s Chandrayaan-3 spacecraft took off from Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota to investigate a rarely explored part of the Moon, on July 14, 2023. Its mission is to be the first craft to land near the Moon’s south pole.
There are many types of otters in the world. Some live on land, some in freshwater, others in the sea. Some live in the Americas, others in Asia. However, only one species of otter is fully aquatic – Enhydra lutris. This is the species known as the sea otter. They have webbed feet and powerful tails, which act as rudders, making them strong swimmers. Otters belong to the weasel family, which also includes weasels, honey badgers, and skunks among others.
Sea otters belong to the kingdom Animalia, the phylum Chordata, and the class Mammalia. They are part of the Mustelidae family, which includes other carnivorous mammals like weasels, honey badgers, and skunks. Furthermore, sea otters fall under the order Carnivora, which encompasses a wide range of carnivorous species.
Sea Otters Habitat – Coastlines and Oceans:
Sea otters are primarily found along the coastlines of the North Pacific Ocean. Their habitat ranges from Russia to Alaska, and they also inhabit the western coast of North America, down to California. They prefer environments with rocky shorelines, kelp forests, and coastal estuaries where they can find their favorite food sources.
In the wild, sea otters have an average lifespan of around 9 years. However, in captivity, they can live up to an impressive 21 years.
Diet – Carnivores of the Ocean:
As carnivores, sea otters have a diverse diet, allowing them to maintain their energetic lifestyle. Their menu typically includes sea urchins, crabs, mussels, clams, and various other invertebrates found in their coastal habitats.
IUCN Red List Status – Endangered:
Sadly, despite their charm and significance in the ecosystem, sea otters are listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List. They face numerous threats, including historical overhunting for their fur, habitat loss, pollution, and oil spills, which have severely impacted their population.
Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are marine mammals belonging to the Mustelidae family. There are two main types or species of sea otters:
Northern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni): This species is found along the coasts of the northern Pacific Ocean, including Alaska, Canada, Russia, and Japan.
Southern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis): This species inhabits the coastal waters of California, USA.
Sea Otters: A Fascinating Journey through Their Taxonomy
The classification of living organisms provides us with a systematic way to understand their evolutionary relationships and biological characteristics. Sea otters, like all living beings, are categorised within the taxonomic hierarchy, starting from the broadest category down to the most specific. Let’s take a closer look at the taxonomic classification of sea otters:
Here are some interesting facts about sea otters:
1. Sea otters have the highest density of fur of all animals. They average 1 million hairs every square inch. The hair keeps them warm!
2. Sea otters use their armpits as a carry bag. They have loose and saggy skin in their armpits that create space for them to store things like rocks. They use rocks as a tool to help them crack hard-shelled clams for food.
3. They can hold their breath for 5 minutes. They can search for food underwater for extended periods of time thanks to their enormous lung capacity.
4. Sea otters love deep dives. Most of their dives are within 60 feet of the surface, although they can dive as deep as 300 feet for food.
5. Otters sleep on their backs while floating and they hold hands when they sleep, so they do not drift apart. A group of sea otters floating together is called a raft.
6. Sea otters can eat 25% of their body weight in food each day. Their diet is varied but you can commonly find them munching on sea urchins, crabs, mussels and clams.
7. Approximately 90 percent of the world’s sea otters live in coastal Alaska.
8. Sea Otters are considered a keystone species.
9. Keystone species are those plants or animals that play a vital role in the working of the ecosystem.