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Tag: Israel's security concerns

Israel Has Declared War On Hamas: Here’s Why

In a surprise attack on October 7, Hamas launched thousands of rockets from Gaza at Israel. Simultaneously, hundreds of armed Hamas fighters crossed the border into Israel. The attacks by Hamas targeted civilians as well as soldiers. Hamas has also taken more than 100 hostages. Israel responded with air strikes into Gaza, saying it was targeting militant sites. The whole of Gaza is surrounded by a wall, so people living there have no way of escaping the air strikes.

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Israel’s Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu told Israelis they are going into a “long and difficult war”. The Israeli Prime Minister called up reserve forces, and Israel began working to make its borders stronger.

Israel has cut off the supply of water, electricity and fuel into Gaza, in order to force the return of the hostages. The United Nations has called for Israel to allow essentials like food, fuel and medical supplies to be delivered in Gaza. It has also called for all hostages to be released.

As on the date of printing this Issue, Egypt had briefly opened its border with Gaza allowing some trucks to take food, medicine, and water into Gaza.

Did You Know?

Under international law: It is illegal to take hostages.

Punishing innocent civilians for the actions of others is also a war crime called collective punishment.

Israel

Israel is a country in the Middle East and was established in 1948 as a homeland for Jews, after World War II. The area where Israel is now used to be called “Palestine”. 

Palestine

Palestine is a region in the Middle East, lying between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea. In 1948, most of Palestine became part of the country of Israel.

The Palestine Liberation Organization 

The people of Palestine were represented by a group called the Palestine Liberation Organization (“PLO”). Israel and PLO signed an agreement in 1993 after secret talks in Oslo, Norway. Israel agreed to hand over the control of Gaza and other territories to Palestine. Palestinian Authority was formed to rule over Palestinian territories. The last Israelis left the Gaza Strip in 2005.

Hamas

Harakat al-Mugawama al-Islamiya, popularly known as Hamas, was formed in 1987 by Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, a Palestinian refugee living in Gaza, during the first uprising, which was marked by widespread protests against Israel’s oc-cupation. Hamas came to power in 2007 and has fought many wars with Israel as it did not want peace with Israel. Hamas has been classified a terrorist organisation by many countries, including the US, UK, EU, and Israel. Hamas is supported by Iran.

As on date, Hamas rules the Gaza strip. Hamas does not recognise the right of Israel to exist and has declared that it wants to destroy the country.

Conflicts

Ever since the establishment of Israel, Israel, Palestine and the neighbouring Arab countries have been fighting over the ownership of the land. This conflict is not new. It has been going on for 100 years. Both Jews and Palestinian Arabs claim the land as their ancestral home.

The conflicts between Israel and the Palestinians are complicated. It is mostly about land and religion. The Palestinians are Muslim, and most Israelis are Jewish. The two sides are not able to agree on a number of issues including what should happen to Palestinian refugees and whether a Palestinian state should be created alongside Israel.

What Is The GAZA Strip?

Gaza strip is an area of Palestine land. It is 41 km long and 10 km wide and situated between Israel and Egypt, where many Palestinians moved when Israel was es-tablished. It is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Around 2.3 million people live in this densely populated territory.

Gaza strip is one of the two Palestinian territories, which is currently controlled by Hamas. Israel controls the airspace over Gaza and its shoreline and restricts who and what goods are allowed in and out. Similar-ly, Egypt controls who passes in and out through its boundary with Gaza.

History Of The Gaza Strip 

Until 1917, Palestine (which included the territory of the Gaza Strip) was a part of the Ottoman Empire. After the Ottoman Empire was defeated in World War I, the UK took control of Palestine (which included the Gaza Strip). It was then occupied by Britain from 1918 to 1948. A majority of Arabs and a minority of Jews lived in the region, along with many other smaller ethnic groups.

During the time period between 1922-1947, Britain supported efforts to make a home for the Jewish people in Palestine. At that time many Jews were fleeing. Europe and came to Palestine to escape the persecution of the Nazis.

In 1947, the UN voted to partition Palestine into separate Jewish and Arab states. This plan was rejected by the Arab leaders but accepted by the Jewish leaders. However, it was not implemented.

The British authorities were not able to resolve the fight, so they withdrew from Palestine. The Jewish leaders then announced the establishment of Israel in 1948. Immediately, a war broke out between Israel and the neighbouring Arab countries including Egypt, Syria, and Jordan. The war resulted in Israel increasing its territory to include more than three-quarters of Palestine. More than half of the Palestine population were forced to leave their homes. The Palestinians call this time period as “Nakba”, meaning catastrophe. Subsequently, Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip from 1948 to 1967. In 1949, Egypt and Israel signed a peace agreement. This agreement set the present boundaries of the territory, which became known as the Gaza Strip.

How big is Gaza?

Gaza Stripe and Israel

After another war in 1967, between Israel and the Arab coun tries of Egypt, Syria, and Jordan, Israel captured the Gaza Strip, Palestinian part of the city of Jerusalem, and the West Bank. Together these areas are called the Occupied Palestinian Territories.

Israelis quickly started building settlements in the area. Their goal was to solidify their control over the area. To protect the settlers, troops were dispatched to the area by Israel. The Palestinians were not happy about these Israeli settlements. They fought with the Israeli troops in Gaza.

Gaza remained under the control of Israel for 38 years. Even though in 2005, Israel pulled out of Gaza, Israel’s huge security wall surrounds most of it. This security wall is around Palestinian areas and controls what goods can go in and out. Egypt controls the western border of Gaza. People cannot leave Gaza without a permit from Israel or Egypt.

What have The World Leaders Said?

US President Joe Biden says his country’s support for Israel is “rock solid and unwavering”. Mr Biden has condemned Hamas’ actions as “evil” and said the US would boost military aid to Israel.

UK Prime Minister Rishi Sunak has pledged “steadfast support to Israel’s Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.

Indian On The Israel-Hamas Conflict

After the attacks on Israel, India has completed a number of successful missions, called “Operation Ajay” to bring back its citizens that were stranded in war hit Israel. India has also sent a huge amount of humanitarian aid to Palestine.

The Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi has said terrorism anywhere in the world and in any form is against humanity and has emphasised that it is time for peace and brotherhood and to move forward while walking together.

Timeline Of Key Events

Early 16th Century: The Ottoman Empire controlled part of the Middle East, including Palestine.

1917: The British army occupied Palestine. The then foreign secretary of the UK signs a document known as the Balfour Declaration, which promises a homeland for the Jews in Palestine.

1933: Many Jews fled to Palestine to escape the Nazis.

1947:  The UN passed a resolution proposing the partition of Palestine into two independent states -the Arab state and a Jewish state.

1948: The British withdrew from Palestine and Israel declared independence. Immediately, a coalition of Arab con-tries, including Palestinian factions, attacked Israel. Israel increases its territory by seizing more Palestinian land. Egypt occupies Gaza.

1967: Israel occupied the West Bank, Gaza, and East Jerusalem.

1987: First large Palestinian uprising against Israel in Gaza and West Bank.

1988: Palestine declared independence

1993: A peace accord is signed between Israel and the PLO.

2002: Israel started building a wall around Palestinian areas.

2005: Israel pulled out of Gaza.

2007: Hamas took control over Gaza.

2023: Hamas invades Israel.

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